Chapterwise dnb ortho question papers question bank - DNB Ortho MS Orthopaedics MRCS Guide DnbOrtho.com

DNB Ortho MS Orthopaedics MRCS Guide DnbOrtho.com

Orthopaedic Guidance for DNB Orthopaedics,MS Orthopaedics and Mrcs exams.Cme courses for orthopaedic surgeons.Davangere notes,solved question papers.DNB Ortho,MS Ortho MRCS,Exam Guide dnbortho.com videos and notes 9087747888 [email protected]

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Wednesday, 18 October 2017

Chapterwise dnb ortho question papers question bank

Chapterwise dnb ortho question papers question bank topic wise - orthodnb.com


Anatomy,Physio
Growth plate & its functions
Growth plate – Anatomy and pathological states affecting it
Describe the histological zones of growth plate. Discuss the anatomical changes which takes place in rickets and Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
types of epiphysis
structure of physis.
Blood supply of the humeral head.
Blood supply of head of femur and its clinical significance
Describe the blood supply of femoral head. How does it differ in children and adults?
the blood supply of talus
the blood supply of a long bone. Discuss the effects of various modalities of internal fixation on the blood supply.
Describe blood supply of long bones and effects of various modalities of fixation on this
.
Give a functional classification of muscles around the shoulder.
Patho – anatomy of recurrent dislocation of shoulder
Intrinsic muscles hand
Intrinsic Hand
Extensor expansion
Describe the flexor zones of hand

Anatomy of FDS and FDP in hand
Types of Muscle Contraction-
a) What is an isotonic contraction?
b) Classify isotonic muscle contraction
c) Give an example of concentric and eccentric muscle contraction in gait cycle
Name the prehensile movements of hand
pathological Anatomy of the bursae of the hand
pathological Anatomy of carpal tunnel
Describe the anatomy of Distal Radio Ulnar Joint
What are the anatomical & physiological differences between neck shaft angle and version in a child and adult?
Biomechanics of Hip
Biomechanics of hip joint and its clinical applications
Biomechanics of Knee in relation to total knee replacement
Draw a cross section of peripheral nerve
Strength – Duration Curve of nerve
Strength Duration Curve
Otto Pelvis

Arches of foot
Anatomy of rotator cuff.
Anatomy of Subacromial space
Anatomy of Lisfranc joint
the extensor mechanism of knee
Describe the properties of synovial fluids. How does it help in differentiating various types of arthritis?
Synovial fluid and its analysis in various arthritis
Synovial fluid analysis
Describe in detail the synovial fluid analysis. How do you differentiate various types of arthritides based on the analysis?
Osteoclast.
Describe the structure of bone with illustrative diagram(s) (10)
Incoporation of Bone Grafts. How does it differ for cancellous and cortical grafts?
Define femoral anteversion. How do you detect it clinically? Discuss the role of anteversion in orthopaedics diagnosis & management
Describe the Physiology of micturition
Histology
Structure and function of articular cartilage
Structure and Biochemistry of articular cartilage

Describe various types of cartilage. Discuss their physiology & ultrastructural characteristics.

Cold Orthopeadics
OA
OA Knee – pathophysiology. Discuss rationale of surgical management of OA Knee
Pathology of osteoarthritis
Discuss the Pathology of osteoarthritis of knee with special reference to the role of ACL rupture in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis knee.
Discuss differential diagnosis in a 25 yr. old male presenting with mono- articular arthritis of knee joint. Tabulate the management in an algorithmic manner.
Discuss principle of chondroplasty in osteoarthritis of knee joint.
Describe the management of unicompartmental osteoarthrosis knee
Describe pathogenesis of medial compartment osteoarthrosis. Discuss pros & cons of HTO vs unicondylar replacement.
Discuss the surgical options in the treatment of mild medial compartment osteoarthrosis of knee in a 40 years old man.
Juvenile Chronic arthritis – DD & investigations
RA
Pathomechanics, Clincal features & Management of various deformities in RA – hand?
What are the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis? Describe the pathological Anatomy and treatment of Boutannaire’s deformity.
Boutannaire deformity – etiology, pathomechanics and management
Describe the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis. Describe in brief the patho-anatomy and treatment of "Boutonneire deformity".
Discuss the pharmacological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Advances in medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Methotrexae as a DMARD
Biological therapy in inflammatory arthritis.
Knee
Habittual dislocation patella
Habitual Dislocation of Patella
Recurrent dislocation of patella
Describe the extensor mechanism of knee and the factors that predispose to recurrent dislocation of patella.
Surgery for habitual dislocation of patella
What do you understand by patellar instability, describe the principles of management, before and after skeletal maturity?
Osteochondritis dessicans
Osteochondritis Dessicans
Discuss treatment options of the focal cartilage defect over the medial femoral condyle in a 40 yr old man (10)
Osteochondral allograft transplantation. Mention indications for the procedure
Osteochondromatosis
Define pigmented villonodular synovitis. Describe pathology, clinical features, diagnosis & its treatment.
Pigmented villonodular synovitis
Pigmented villonodular synovitis
loose bodies in knee – etiology? How will u manage a case of 30 year old sportsmanwho presents with locked knee due to loose body

Shoulder
Discuss Anatomy of rotator cuff. What is rotator cuff disease? Discuss its pathogenesis and management.
Painful arc syndrome
Describe the Anatomy of recurrent dislocation shoulder? Discuss Management
Patho – anatomy of recurrent dislocation of shoulder.
Rationale of surgical Rx for recurrent anterior dislocation shoulder?
Rationale of surgical treatment of recurrent dislocation of shoulder
shoulder instability
Shoulder instability
Define multidirectional instability of shoulder joint. Discuss its management.
Subacromial impingement syndrome
Costo clavicular syndrome
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Describe etiopathogenesis of thoracic outlet syndrome and its management
Causes and treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome
What is thoracic outlet syndrome? Discuss its Anatomy . How will you diagnose it in OPD?
Discuss the anatomical basis of thoracic outlet syndrome and its management (5+5)

Elbow
Cubitus Varus
how will u manage a case of recalcitrant tennis elbow?
Wrist and Hand
Describe Madelung deformity, classification, clinical features and management of Madelung deformity
Describe the Aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Madelung deformity(3+3+4)
madelung deformity
Describe the causes of ulnar wrist pain after healing of distal radius fractures. Discuss the management of DRUJ disorders.
Investigations of Pain in Hand?
Dupuytren’s contracture
Describe Dupuytren disease and its characteristic features Describe Dupuytren disease and its characteristic features
What is the pathological Anatomy of carpal tunnel? Describe briefly the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Define Carpal Tunnel syndrome. Describe its anatomy, causes and management
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Kienbock’s disease.
What is Kienbock's disease? Write briefly its etiology, diagnosis, clinical staging and management.
Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of nonunion of scaphoid.

Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Discuss the treatment of nonunion of scaphoid (4+6)
Intrinsic Hand
Shoulder Hand Syndrome(CRPS)
Describe the causes of ulnar wrist pain after healing of a distal radial fracture and discuss the management(DRUJ disruption)
Describe the anatomy of Distal Radio Ulnar Joint. Describe indications & technique of performing Kapandji’s procedure
Hip
Blood supply of head of femur in diff age groups?Management of Idiopathic AVN of Femur?
Describe aetiopathogenesis of avascular necrosis of hip. Classify avascular necrosis of hip. Comment on broad principles of its management.
Describe the pathology of avascular necrosis of femoral head and outline the principles of management in Ficat 3 stage of femoral head in a 30 years old man.
Core decompression
tuberculosis of hip joint
Enumerate the radiological types of Tuberculosis Hip. How does this classification help us in prognostication?
Rationale for using metallic implants in osteoarticular tuberculosis.
Discuss the principles of management of Non-Union fracture Neck of Femur in an adult.
Discuss the pathological alterations of femoral neck & head in neglected & ununited femoral neck fractures and their management?

Treatment of ununited fracture neck of femur
Describe the management of failed osteosynthesis of fracture neck of femur in a young adult(10)
Femoro-acetabular lmpingement Syndrome
Femoro acetabular impingement syndrome.
Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome
Describe the Anatomy of iliotibial band and the effect of its contracture on the lower limb. How do you clinically detect the contracture?
Ober’s test.(ITB contracture)
Adolescnt coxa vara
Foot
Rigid flat foot
Pes Planus –etiology & Management?
Pes planus
pes planus
Pes planus
Describe the arches of foot. Discuss the clinical features and management of peroneospastic flat foot.
. Describe arches of foot. Classify Flat Foot & briefly discuss the management principles of flat feet in a child.
Calcaneovalgus foot
Calcaneovalgus Deformity
Calcaneovalgus deformity. Disscuss the treatment issues in mature and immature foot

Describe muscular dynamics in calcaneovalgus deformity. Describe management in patients before and after attaining skeletal maturity
Describe the pathogenesis of hallux valgus deformity; describe the role of metatarsus primary varus in the pathogenesis. How will you manage an adolescent girl with severe hallux valgus?
Hallux valgus
Triple arthrodesis for equines
Pathology , clinical features and management of diabetic foot
Classify the lesions of diabetic foot. Outline the management.
Describe the principles of stabilization of foot
Misc
Synovioma
Non specific synovitis
Crystal Synovitis
Myositis Ossificans
Neurogenic Bladder
Compound palmar ganglia
Define neuropathic joint. List the causes of neuropathic joint. Mention in brief the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic joint
Describe the pathology, clinical features and principles of treatment of a neuropathic joint.
Discuss the pathophysiology and principles of treatment of Heterotopic ossification.
Discuss the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and Differential Diagnosis of Heterotopic Ossification (3+3+4)

Plaster Cast Syndrome
Fracture Disease.
Paediatric cold
etiology and pathological Anatomy of DDH
Define Legg Calves Perthes disease. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and management
Discuss etiology, pathogenesis and management of Perthe’s disease.
Prognostic factors and outcome in the treatment of Perthe’s disease
Prognostic factors in Legg Calve Perthes disease
Write short note on Coxa Vara.
Adolescnt coxa vara
Classify Coxa Vara. Describe the management of adolescent coax vara
What is congenital coxa vara? Describe its pathophysiology and outline principles of management.
Clinical features and management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
Describe the aetiopathology and management of SCFE(4+6)
Describe briefly the clinical features and management of SCFE?
Coxa Plana – Clinical, Radiological features, Differential diagnosis and principles of treatment
List the causes of limp in an 8 years old child. Describe the differentiating features of septic arthritis with transient synovitis
List the causes of limp in a child

Discuss the differential diagnosis and investigation in an 8 yr old child with persistent limp((5+5)
What are the types of epiphysis? Describe the types, various methods and indications of epiphysiodesis
Enumerate the causes of intoeing gait. How will you treat intoeing gait because of hip disorders.
Intoeing gait
How will you evaluate a child with genu valgum deformity? Outline the principles of management. What is timed epiphysiodesis?
Describe the clinical features ,diagnosis and management of tuberculosis hip in children(3+3+4)

Nerous system disorders in children
POLIO
Hand to Knee gait in Polio
Post – polio equinus deformity of foot – etiopathology, evaluation & management
Describe the pathological Anatomy , clinical features and management of post polio calcaneus deformity in a 12 yr. Old patient.
Post Polio Residual Paralysis
Enumerate various deformities of foot and ankle seen in Post Polio Residual Paralysis (PPRP). Describe in detail the management of Talipes Calcaneus
CP
Cerebral diplegia? Line of Management?
role and mode of action of pharmacological treatment in CP
Botulin in cerebral palsy patients
Define and classify cerebral palsy. Describe crouched gait and its management in a 10 yr. old child.
Describe the various foot and ankle deformities in cerebral palsy and their management.
Equinus Deformity in cerebral palsy – Etiopathogenesis, evaluation and treatment.
Discuss the types of equines contracture in cerebral palsy and its management.

neurofibromatosis
Orthopaedic manifestation of neurofibromatosis
Congenital anomalies and syndromes
Define pseudoarthrosis of tibia. Describe its pathogenesis, diagnosis, classification and management.
Pseudoarthrosis Of tibia and fibula
Bowing of Tibia in children – Causes, types, clinical features & management of congenital bowing of tibia
Bowing of Tibia in children – Causes, types and management of Congenital Bowing
CTEV
Neglected Cong. Talipes Equino varus
Describe pathological Anatomy and radiology in CTEV.
Dwyer’s osteotomy for CTEV – Indications, steps and complications
A one year old child has been successfully treated for CTEV. Describe the orthotic management from this time to the completion of treatment?
Briefly describe the principles & steps of Ponsetti’s method of CTEV correction.
Ponseti method of CTEV management
Describe the pathoanatomy of clubfoot. Discuss briefly the principles of Ponseti technique.
Classify congenital dislocation of knee. Comment on differential diagnosis and management
Pathophysiology, types and clinical features of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Osteogenesis imperfect

Osteogenesis imperfecta
Radial Club Hand
Radial club hand.
Classify radial club hand. Describe the pathological Anatomy & management of a 1 yr old child?
Pollicisation – Indications and prerequisites
Congenital amputations of lower limb in children
Congenital vertical Talus – Etiology, Pathology , clinical, radiological features and management.
Patho-anatomy and management of congenital vertical talus
Pathoanatomy, radiology and diagnosis of Congenital vertical Talus
Congenital Vertical Talus
Define congenital muscular torticollis. List the differential diagnosis and outline the management of congenital muscular torticollis.
Congenital Torticollis
Sprengel’s Deformity. Etio pathogenesis, clinical features and management
Congenital postural deformities associated with in-utero position.
Classify congenital skeletal limb deficiencies(10)

Syndromes
klippel feil syndrome
Klippel Feil syndrome
Klippel-Fiel syndrome – Etiology, Pathology , clinical & radiological features, differential diagnosis & management
Ehler-Danlos syndrome
What is Marfan’s syndrome? What is its orthopaedic management?

Nerve Injury
Strength – Duration Curve.
what is neuropraxia? How will you differentiate it from axonometsis during first few days of injury
Describe nerve injuries, Sunderland Classification, outcome expected and basis of repair
Classify nerve injuries. What is the role of electrodiagnosis in differentiating various nerve lesions?
Draw a cross section of peripheral nerve and label the structures. Describe Sunderland's classification of nerve injury.
Define entrapment syndrome. Enumerate various entrapment syndromes. Discuss the entrapment syndrome in relation to the ulnar nerve in detail.
Describe pathophysiology of nerve compression (entrapment) syndromes. Enumerate various syndromes of nerve entrapment. Give an outline of the management of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome.
Wallerian Degenration
Wallerian degeneration
Motor March
What is crutch palsy? Describe the orthotic management of wrist drop.
Describe the presentation of tourniquet palsy and its causes. What precautions are taken to prevent it?
Ulnar claw hand
Claw hand
Enumerate various causes of claw hand. What is the pathogenesis of clawing? Discuss the principles of surgical correction.
Pathophysiology of claw hand and its treatment

Describe the management of claw hand
Define ulnar claw hand. Discuss the tendon transfer for ulnar claw hand following ulnar nerve injury
Define ulnar claw hand. Enumerate the causes of ulnar claw hand. Discuss its management.
Claw Hand – Etiology, patho-mechanics,principles of various corrective procedures.
. Enumerate causes of claw hand deformity. Discuss its management in short (3+7)
wrist drop
Describe the causes of radial nerve palsy & its presentation And Discuss its management Discuss orthotic management in a High Radial Nerve Palsy
. Early tendon transfer in Radial Nerve Palsy
Principles of management of radial nerve injury
Describe the broad principles of tendon transfer. Enumerate the tendon transfer for high radial nerve palsy.
Principles of Tendon Transfer.
What is modified Jone’s transfer for a high radial nerve palsy? How does it differ from original transfer?
Discuss various functions of hand. How will you attain key pinch in a quadriplegic with no useful power?
Draw a labeled diagram of brachial plexus. Classify brachial plexus injury. Describe the clinical features and management of lower brachial plexus injury. Clinical differentiation between pre-ganglionic and postganglionic lesions of brachial plexus & its effect on the management.

Anterior Interosseous Nerve syndrome – Aetiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis and management
Describe the surgical reconstruction in a case of one and a half yr old common peroneal nerve palsy (10)
Name the prehensile movements of hand. What are the tendon transfers described for opponens deficit hand?
What are the various methods of closing gaps between nerve ends during nerve repair?

Hot Ortho – Truama
General ortho
Shock
Endotoxic Shock
Pathophysiology of septic shock.
management of fat embolism
How will you differentiate between the cerebral sign as a result of head injury vs fat embolism syndrome? Describe in brief management of fat embolism syndrome.
Describe clinical features, diagnostic criteria and treatment of fat embolism syndrome.
Define "Fat Embolism Syndrome". Describe in brief the clinical features, diagnosis and management of "Fat Embolism Syndrome".
exertional compartment syndrome
Describe pathogenesis of acute compartment syndrome and its diagnosis
Acute compartment syndrome
Compartment Syndrome
Compartment syndrome
Chronic compartment syndrome
Chest trauma:- Tension pneumpthorax
Tension Pneumothorax
management of multiple rib fracture with Haemopneumothorax
Management of multiple rib fractures with haemothorax
Clinical features and management of stove in chest(flail chest).

Describe the clinical features, diagnosis & management of fail chest
Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Crush Syndrome
Discuss the management of deep vein thrombosis in orthopaedic patients
DVT
Discuss the etiopathology, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of D.V.T.
Post operative DVT – Prevention, clinical features and treatment
Discuss the diagnosis and clinical features of DVT in orthopedic surgery. Outline the management. What special precautions are required if post- operative epidural analgesia is used for 4 – 5 days.
Prophylaxis in thrombo-embolic disease.
Features which differentiate head injury from the cerebral symptoms of Fat Embolism syndrome.
Differentiating features of head injury from cerebral symptoms of fat embolism syndrome
guiding principles of removal of orthopaedic implants after fracture union. What are the current recommendations for removal of implant in commonly encountered fractures
What is Polytrauma? Describe the scoring method & principles of management of a patient with polytrauma in accident & emergency department.
Describe the pathophysiology of Polytrauma patient and discuss the principles of Damage Control Orthopedics.
Damage control orthopaedics
Damage control orthopaedics

Briefly discuss the principles and priorities in managing polytrauma
Discuss prophylaxis against secondary complications of patient with polytrauma.
Draw a flow chart of disaster planning at state level. What is the concept of triage?
What is multi system organ failure? What are indicators of mortality? Write briefly about diagnosis and management.
Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome
Define and classify VIC. Describe its surgical and orthotic management in Grade II VIC of forearm.
Volkmans ischaemic contracture
Discuss the principles of application of Functional Cast Bracing in ' the management of diaphyseal fractures of long bones.
Etiopathogenesis, Pathology and management of DIC.
DIC
Describe wound balistics. Discuss briefly the management of gun shot wounds.
Discuss advanced trauma life support.(ATLS)
Upper extremity
Discuss the advances in the management of periarticular fractures
Surgical Anatomy of AC joint along with classification of AC joint injuries. Briefly discuss the management.
Classification and treatment of acromioclavicular dislocation
Acromio clavicular Disruption

Classify acromic-clavicular joint injuries and describe their management
Rotator cuff injury in sportsmen.
Describe the Anatomy of Subacromial space. What is the morphology of acromion process in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears? How will you manage full thickness tear?
Classify fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly. What is the relevance of blood supply of the humeral head in planning management? How will you treat four part fracture?
Classify proximal humerus fracture. Discuss the management options for various types. Outline the management for type IV fracture in elderly females.
Classify fractures of the proximal humerus. What is the relevance of blood supply of humerus in planning management? How will you treat four part fractures?
Fractures at the upper end of humerus
discuss the management of closed fracture shaft of humerus with radial nerve palsy
Management of Brachial artery injury in association with supracondylar fracture of humerus.
Lateral Condyle fracture of Humerus
Perilunar Dislocation
Classify fractures of the Capitullumn and discuss the management of each type
Treatment of intercondylar fracture of humerus
Describe the classification of the distal humeral fractures in adults. Describe the surgical approaches used for internal fixation of these fractures (4+6)

Describe briefly the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, investigations and treatment of painful elbow following injury around elbow.
Describe the mechanism of injury of Radial head fracture. Discuss its classification and management (3+3+4)
Carpal instability – types, clinical features and radiological assessment
Describe instability patterns after wrist trauma. Discuss the management of VISI (Volar Intercalated Segment Instability)
Intercarpal instability
Mid carpal instability
surgical principles of flexor tendon repair
Describe the flexor zones of hand. Discuss the principles of acute tendon repair (zone-wise).
Discuss the management of flexor tendon injury in zone II
Management of acute zone II flexor tendon injuries.
Classify flexor tendon injuries of the hand. Describe the treatment of neglected ruptures of flexor tendons in Zone II.
Describe the treatment of acute flexor tendon injuries in various zones of hand (10)
Finger Injuries
Bennet’s Fracture dislocation
Old metacarpo phalangeal dislocation
Treatment of fractures of distal end of radius
Describe various methods of treatment of distal radius # with their principles
Classify distal radius fractures. Describe radiological indices of wrist. Discuss the treatment principles of extra-articular distal radius fractures

Classification of Distal Radius fracture
Classify distal radius fractures. What are the recent trends in their management?
Lower extremity
Management of fracture pelvis and their complications
Classify pelvic fractures and discuss the management.
Management of Pelvic fractures
Ganz antishock pelvic fixator.
classify fractures of pelvis briefly discuss the management of rotationally unstable and vertically stable injuries
Discuss the approach to a patient of pelvic fracture with a suspected abdominal injury.
Management of a patient having fracture pelvis with urinary retention. Restrict yourself to the management of his urinary problem.
Classify fracture acetabulum and outline the indications of surgical treatment.
Classify fractures of acetabulum and role of conventional radiology in the classification
Evaluation and principles of management of fracture acetabulum
Classify fractures of the acetabulum. Discuss radiographic evaluation of acetabular trauma.
Classify posterior fracture dislocation of with femoral head fracture and describe the management.

Fracture Neck of Femur – Classification and treatment
Stress fracture of neck femur.
Fracture head of femur
Differentiating features in the patho Anatomy & management of intracapsular fracture neck of femur in children & adults.
Management of Trochnanteric fractures in elderly
what is unstable trochanteric fracture? Briefly describe the various methods of managing unstable trochanteric fracture
Classify peri prosthetic fracture following a total hip replacement. Discuss their management.
Classify peri-prosthetic fractures following THR. Outline theis management strategies
Classify periprosthetic fractures around the knee and discuss their management.
classify Periprosthetic fractures around the knee. Outline the treatment strategy
Classify Periprosthetic fractures of femur following arthroplasty and describe treatment options.
Classify fractures of distal end femur discuss the principles of their management.
How will you manage a case of knee dislocation with absent distal pulsations?
What is floating knee? Discuss its management in a 25 yr. Old adult
management of haemarthrosis of knee developing in an injury

How will you manage a case of acute Hemarthrosis Knee?
What is traumatic arthrotomy of the knee joint? What is fluid challenge test to confirm the diagnosis in doubtful cases? Outline the principles of management.
Recent advances in the management of intraarticular fractures of upper end of tibia
Classify proximal tibial fractures. Outline the management of type lV, V, and Vl fractures.
Classification of Rotatory knee instability
What is Mangled Extremity severity score(MESS), describe principles of flap coverage in proximal one third of tibia
Classify open fractures of tibia. Describe the management of type 3 b open fracture of tibia.
Discuss the merits & demerits of operative & non-operative treatment of simple diaphyseal fracture of tibia.
Two level fracture of shaft of tibia
Fractures and dislocation of talus
Fracture Talus
Fracture Talus.
Describe the blood supply of talus. classify "Talar neck fractures". Discuss treatment and list complications
Peritalar dislocation
Discuss indications, merits and demerits of talectomy.
Calcaneum fracture
Classification of Calcaneal fracture

Describe the Sander's classification of calcaneal fractures and discuss the treatment of each type (4+6)
Classify calcaneal fractures. Discuss the management based on classification system. Enumerate the complications.
Classify fractures of calcaneum. Outline the principles of management.
Classify fracture calcaneum and describe their management
Principles of management of Lisfranc injuries of foot.
What is Lisfranc joint? Classify injuries around this joint and principles of management.
Describe the classification, clinical features and management of Lisfranc's fracture dislocation(3+3+4)
.Anatomy of Lisfranc joint, and management of injuries around the joint
Classify ankle injuries. Which fracture patterns have syndesmotic instability and how do you manage that?
Classify ankle fractures, which pattern has syndesmotic instability, what is their management?
Classify ankle injuries. Which fracture patterns have syndesmotic instability & how do you manage it?
Discuss mechanism & classification of injury around ankle joint. Discuss diagnosis and treatment
Classify Pilon fractures and discuss their management.
Describe mechanism of injuries and classify “Pilon fractures” outline management options.
Pilon fracture
Acute ankle sprain
Acute rupture of Achilles Tendon

Amputations
Enumerate various classical levels of lower limb amputations. Discuss AK amputation in detail. What is the difference in energy consumption by the patient in AK amputation as compared to a BK amputation?
Symes amputation
what is symes amputation? Desribe the indications and complications. What is the prosthesis suitable for symes amputation?
Amputations in children
Congenital amputations of lower limb in children
Principles of amputation in lower limbs in children
Principles of amputation of lower limb in children
Principle of amputation of lower limbs in children
indications of amputation. Describe surgical principles of amputation in children and adults
How do principles of amputation differ in children as compared to adults? What is pylon prosthesis? What are advantages and disadvantages?
Principles of amputation in children
Describe indications for amputation, Principles of lower limb amputation in children
Skew Flap Amputation – indications, advantages of conventional amputation,steps of operation and complications.
How will you transport an organ after amputation to a sterilized centre for re-implantation? What is the order of implantation in a below elbow amputation?
Ideal stump

Paedatric Trauma
Enumerate the complications of femoral neck fractures in children and discuss the management in any one of the complications
Classify fracture neck of femur in children. Describe its management and complications briefly
Classify pediatric hip fractures (proximal femur). Describe current treatment options and enumerate the complications.
Management of ankle fractures in children
Treatment of radial head and neck fractures in children
Current concepts in the management of fracture neck & head of radius in children and adults.
Lateral Condyle fracture of Humerus
Perilunar Dislocation
Classification, management and complication of fractures of the radial head and neck in children
What are Monteggia equivalents, discuss the principles of management of Monteggia fracture dislocation in children
Describe classification of Montegia fracture dislocation and its management.
Define and classify Montegia fracture dislocation. Discuss the treatment principles of neglected Montegia fracture dislocation in a 10 years old child.
Principles of management of a pulseless hand after supracondylar fractures in children
Classify elbow dislocation. How will you manage an unreduced posterior dislocation elbow in 10 yr. old child?

What is a Toddler’s fracture? Discuss its differential diagnosis and management
Classify physeal injuries. Describe the management and complications of various types of physeal injuries.
Describe the structure of physis. Classify physeal injury. Outline the treatment of physeal injury and enumerate the compiications
Epiphyseal injuries
Classify epiphyseal injuries. Describe the complications. What is Langenskiold’s procedure?
Salter Harris classification of epiphyseal injuries and it’s relevance to skeletal growth

Metabolic Disorders
Describe calcium metabolism. Discuss the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of nutritional rickets.
Describe the metabolism of Vitamin D and its clinical significance.
Renal Rickets – Pathophysiology
Renal Rickets
Renal Rickets.
Renal Rickets
Describe various types of rickets; describe biochemical changes and clinical presentation of various types of rickets!
Define and classify Rickets. Describe pathogenesis, clinical features and management of hypophosphatemic rickets
Vitamin D resistant rickets
Outline the calcium metabolism. What do you mean by Vitamin D resistant rickets? Describe its clinical features and management.
List the factors affecting Ca metabolism. Describe the radiological features of rickets (5+5)
Describe the pathology and radiological signs in rickets and Scurvy
Sudecks dystrophy
Sudeks Osteodystrophy
Sudeck’s osteodystrophy
Renal Osteodystrophy
Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of renal rickets
Radiological and biochemical features of renal osteodystrophy and their interpretation.

Bony changes in hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism along with relevant pathophysiology.
Describe the mechanism of calcium homeostasis by parathyroid hormone and the skeletal changes that occur as a result of hyperparathyroidism. Discuss the uses and limitations of lab investigations in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism
Discuss the role of parathyroid glands in calcium metabolism
Hyper parathyroidism
Brown Tumor.
Osteoporosis – Definition, Etiology, Clinical features, Investigations, Prevention and Treatment.
What is the indication & principle behind parathormone therapy for treatment of osteoporosis? What are its merits & demerits?
Transient migralory osteoporosis
Transient Migratory Osteoporosis of the hips
Differentiating features between Osteonecrosis and transient migratory osteoporosis
Define osteoporosis. Comment on types, causes and management
Osteoporosis
Define & classify Osteoporosis. Discuss in brief its clinical features .diagnosis & management.
Post Menopausal Osteoporosis – Prevention and management.
What are Biochemical markers for bone formation and bone resorption. Discuss their role in management of osteoporosis
Biochemical markers of Bone formation and resorption.
Define gout. Describe in brief its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.

Describe the clinical features, laboratory findings and management of gout (3+3+4)
Define ochronotic arthropathy. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and management.
Osteomalacia
Describe calcium metabolism. Discuss clinical features & management of Osteomalacia.
Diagnosis and treatment of osteomalacia
Clinical and radiological diagnosis of scurvy
Bledding Disorders
Haemophilia knee
Enumerate bleeding disorders . How will you manage a grossly arthritic Knee in haemophilia?
Haemophiliac arthropathy
Haemophilic arthropathy

Sickle cell disease
Describe the musculoskeletal manifestations in sickle cell anaemia(10)

Spine
Tuberculosis
Describe the development of vertebral column.Pathogenesis and management of potts paraplegia. Discuss the treatment of resistant cases?
Pathogenesis, Clinical features & management of Caries spine in a child 10 yrs old
Neurological deficit in caries spine; types, pathogenesis and prognostic factors?
Pathophysiology & presentation of TB spine in children
What are the various causes of late onset paraplegia in tuberculosis of spine? Describe the investigative modalities and outline the principles of management.
Discuss the indications of surgery in TB spine with or without neurological compfications
Define MDR Tuberculosis. Discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of a case of MDR tuberculosis of spine (1+2+3+4)
Trauma
what is ballistics. Briefly describe the current management of ballistic injuries of the spine.
Treatment of odontoid fracture in adults.
Enumerate the types of spinal cord lesions following fracture dislocation of C5-6 vertebrae and discuss clinical features, treatment and prognosis of each type of lesion in adult.
Describe the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of acute spinal cord injury

what are the various protocols which have been used for pharmacological intervention in spinal cord injuries.what is the current opinion on pharmacological intervention
Discuss the role of injectable steroids following spinal injury.
Traumatic paraplegia
Discuss the principles of rehabilitation of a paraplegic patient.
Describe the mechanism of injury. Classify and treatment of Hangman’s fracture.
Hangmans fracture
Hangman’s Fracture.
Describe the mechanism of injury and clinical presentation of various incomplete spinal cord syndromes.
Enumerate various spinal cord syndromes. Describe salient features of each syndrome.
Describe the mechanism of injury & clinical presentation of various incomplete spinal cord syndromes.
What is central cord syndrome, describe its clinical presentation. How will you manage such a case?
Discuss sexual and bladder rehabilitation of a 30 yr. old male following a complete spinal injury at D12 vertebral level.
Autonomic dysreflexia in Spinal Cord lnjury
Automatic Dysreflexia.
Classify thoracolumbar spine injuries. Give radiological classification of burst fracture. Outline the management of burst fracture of L1 vertebra.
describe the classification of thoracolumbar injuries and discuss the treatment of burst fracture L1(5+5)
Discuss the management of osteoporotic spinal fractures.

Investigation of collapse of a vertebra
Management of metastasis in spine
Cold
What is claudication? Classify it and discuss its cause specific management.
How does a neurological claudication differ from vascular claudication? Enumerate the etiology of the two.
Discuss the pathogenesis of neurospinal claudication.
Describe the Physiology of micturition. Briefly discuss the management of automatic bladder in spinal injuries.
Classification of neurogenic bladder and management
Paralytic Bladder.
Automatic bladder
Aetiology, Pathology & Mx of Spinal canal stenosis
Pathophysiology of lumbar canal stenosis.
pathogenesis of lumbar canal stenosis? What is the differentiating feature between vascular & neurogenic claudication
What are the indications of spinal osteotomy in ankylosing spondylitis? Describe the various techniques.
Describe the pathology, diagnosis and broad principles of management of ankylosing spondylitis.
Classify Spondylolisthesis. Describe the management
filum terminale syndrome

Describe various types of lumbar root anomalies. List the complications of lumbar disc surgery.
How will u differentiate structural scoliosis from nonstructural scoliosis?describe infantile idiopathic scoliosis. What is the importance of rib vertebral angle?
Management of congenital scoliosis
Scheurmans disease.
Tumor
Discuss approach to find out a primary tumor in a 65 yr. Old man presenting with vertebral metastasis and low backache.
Discuss the approach to a patient with suspected bony metastasis with unknown primary tumor.
Diagnostic criteria of osteolytic lesion in upper end tibia
metastatic lesion of bone & tis management
management of skeletal metastasis
Management of metastasis in spine
Role of Pamidronate in bone metastasis
tumour induced osteomalacia
fibrous dysplasia
Osteofibrous Dysplasia
Mono ostotoc fibrous dysplasia
round cell tumour. Discuss the management of multiple myeloma
Discuss the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis & management of multiple myeloma.

Describe bone tumour. Classification, diagnosis and treatment modalities for Multiple Myeloma
Multiple myelpma – Investigations & Management?
Morbid Anatomy , radiological and laboratory features of Multiple Myeloma
Ewings tumour
Ewings sarcoma
Ewing’s Sarcoma
Clinical, pathological and radiological features, staging and management of Ewing’s sarcoma.
Briefly discuss the clinical features and pathology of Ewing’s Sarcoma. Outline the principles of treatment in a case of Ewing’s Sarcoma of upper end of humerus.
What are Giant cell variants? Describe in brief their differential diagnosis
Discuss various methods available for treatment of Giant cell tumor of proximal tibia in a 30 yr. old man
Define Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) of bone. Describe in brief clinical features, diagnosis and management principles for GCT of upper end of tibia
Indications of Limb salvage surgery in malignant bone tumors.
Describe the techniques of limb salvage in osteosarcoma.
Chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.
Parosteal Osteosarcoma
Unicameral Bone Cyst
describe the DD of cystic lesion in upper end of humerus in a 10 year old child. Describe the management of SBC in same child

Briefly describe the clinical features, types and management of osteoid osteoma.
primitive neuroectodermal tumours

Infection
Management of septic arthritis in children,
Describe briefly the aetiology, clinical features and principles of treatment of Tom Smith arthritis.
Tom Smith arthritis
Sequelae of pyogenic arthritis of hip in infancy
Septic arthritis of hip in a child below 5 years and above 3years
Pathology of tuberculous arthritis and correlation with clinical staging
Define osteomyelitis. Discuss the pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of acute osteomyelitis in a child.
Discuss the pathogenesis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. How does it differ in different age groups
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. Diagnosis and management
Describe anatomical classification of chronic osteomyelitis. Discuss the principles of management based on this classification. How will you fill the dead space after excision of infected tissue?
Brodies abscess
Management of fracture of fracture shaft of femur that has become infected after intramedullary fixation
Enumerate various diagnostic tests with their relative merit for post- operative infection. Outline the treatment of post-operative infection after internal fixation
Classify infected nonunion. Discuss the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia.

Outline the principles of management in a case of infected non union of a long bone. How will you treat infected non union of tibia?
Discuss Pathology & management of infected non-union
Discuss the etiology, Pathology , diagnosis, and management of Gas Gangrene of the Lower Extremity.
What is Gas Gangrene? Discuss the clinical features, bacteriology and principles of management.
Define Gangrene. Describe the aetiological classification & Mx of gas gangerene?
Madura foot
Madura foot.
Preparation and precautions required to operate HIV positive patients
what are the musculo skeletal manifestations of retroviral infection
Describe musculoskeletal manifestations of HIV infected patients.
Describe in brief about HIV infection, its diagnosis. Orthopedic implications & guidelines to prevent its spread during surgery.
Nosocomial infection on orthopaedics – common organism and preventive measures.
Describe the pathological Anatomy of the bursae of the hand. Discuss the etiology, clinical feature and management of acute infection in hand bursae?
Describe the features of necrotizing fascitis & its management
Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infection.
Pathology of tuberculous arthritis and correlation with clinical staging

Plastic and Microsurgery
Skin grafting
Describe various types of skin grafts. Discuss the stages of biological incorporation of skin grafts
describe principles of flap coverage in proximal one third of tibia
What is flap reconstruction? Write its classification
Describe 'free vascularized bone transplant. Discuss the principles of technique and applications in Orthopaedic practice
Fascio-cutaneous skin graft
Decribe the various myocutaneous flaps used to cover tibia in different levels.

Pharmac and medicine
BG and analogues
Bone grafts
Incoporation of Bone Grafts. How does it differ for cancellous and cortical grafts?
Bone graft substitutes
What are bone graft substitutes? How do they work?
Describe bone graft substitutes, their incorporation & possible side effects
Describe different types of bone grafts along with their properties.
BMP
Bone morphogenic protein
Drugs
Uses of botulinum neurotoxin in Orthopaedic surgery.
Botulin in cerebral palsy patients
Orthopaedic complications of high dose steroid
What is DOTS? What is its rationale?
2nd line of ATT
Allopurinol
role and mode of action of pharmacological treatment in CP
Role of Pamidronate in bone metastasis
Methotrexae as a DMARD

Raloxifene.
Briefly describe the drugs which influence remodelling
Biological therapy in inflammatory arthritis.
What are bisphosphonates? Discuss the role of Bisphosphonates in various orthopedic disorders
Alendronate induced fractures
Blood transfusion
Massive Transfusion.
Autologous Transfusion
Methods for reducing risks of blood transfusion

Implants And Products
Suture Materials.
Enumerate Biodegradable implants. What are the advantages and disadvantages of their use?
What are biodegradable implants, what is their chemical composition? Mention the indications of their use, advantage and disadvantage of their use
Biodegradable implants
Biodegradable lmplants
Biodegradable implants
Biodegradable orthopedic implants
Name biomaterials used in orthopedics. Describe in brief their features
Bone Cement
Stress, Strain, Modulus of elasticity and strength in relation to metallic implants.
Stress, strain & modulus of elasticity in relationship to implants
Describe Stress, Strain, and Young's Modulus of Elasticity in relation to Orthopedic implants.
What is highly cross linked polyethylene? How is it manufactured? How has it affected modern total hip arthroplasty?
Discuss ceramics as bearing surface in Total Hip Arthroplasty
Ceramics In Orthopaedics
Ceramic bearing surfaces in arthroplasty
Describe pitfalls in using the Locking Compression Plate.

. Discuss the differences between :-
a. Machine screw and ASIF screw
b. DCP, LCDCP, Locking plate
c. Static compression and Dynamic compression
what is locked compression plate? Discuss the principles, clinical situations where it is particularly usefull
Elaborate the principles of LCP. What are the applications in periarticular fractures?
Principles, merits & demerits of locking plates
the blood supply of a long bone. Discuss the effects of various modalities of internal fixation on the blood supply.
Describe blood supply of long bones and effects of various modalities of fixation on this
Role of Polyethelene in Orthopedics
Role of fibrin gel in Orthopedics

Ortho surgery procedures and approaches
Approaches
Describe the various approaches to the spine
Harmon’s approach of Tibia with applied Anatomy
Describe Briefly the approach to the hip. Mention the advantages & disadvantages of each approach.
What are indications of arthrography in a hip? Discuss various approaches to aspirate the hip joint.
Thompsons approach of radius with applied Anatomy
Surgical Dislocation of Hip.
Describe the classification of the distal humeral fractures in adults. Describe the surgical approaches used for internal fixation of these fractures (4+6)
Describe the illustrative diagrams of the surgical exposure of radius at various levels (10)
Trochanteric flip osteotomy in surgical exposures of the hip joint.
Techniques and principles
Tension band principle and its application in treatment of fractures using a wire and plate.
Define Tension Band principle. Describe the use of Tension Band principle in fracture surgery.
Tension band wiring principle.
Describe the tension band principle and how it is used in fracture care(5+5)
Compression plating

Distraction histiogenesis
Compression & Distraction in Orthopaedics
Role of Ligamentotaxis in fractures
guiding principles of removal of orthopaedic implants after fracture union. What are the current recommendations for removal of implant in commonly encountered fractures
Describe various systems, implants available for limb length equalization. Discuss their underlying principle.
Define external fixation. Classify the external fixators. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of external fixation.
External fixator in musculoskeletal injuries
Discuss the principles and the biomechanics of intra-medullary nailing.
Principles and applications of lnterlocking Nailing
discuss the indications pros and cons of reamed Vs undreamed intramedullary nailing
Tendon repair techniques and important suture configurations.
Discuss the principles of application of Functional Cast Bracing in ' the management of diaphyseal fractures of long bones.
Hanging cast

Procedures
Chiari Osteotomy – indications, advantages, steps of surgery.
Describe briefly indications, contraindications and principle technical steps of Salter’s osteotomy.
Describe Salter’s osteotomy. What are its indications, merits and demerits.
Salter's Osteotomy
Salter’s osteotomy
Salter osteotomy for DDH.
indications of Valgus osteotomy for fracture neck of femur. Discuss the preoperative planning, Implant choice, advantages and disadvantages of the procedure/
what is LISS. Discuss its role in stabilizing fractures of distal femur
high tibial osteotomy
Ganz antishock pelvic fixator.
Discuss indications, merits and demerits of talectomy.
Bristow’s procedure
Langenskiold’s procedure (physeal arrest)
High tibial osteotomy
Describe indications & technique of performing Kapandji’s procedure
Pollicisation – Indications and prerequisites
Dwyer’s osteotomy for CTEV – Indications, steps and complications
Stewart and Harnaley ankle arthrodesis.

What is pelvic support osteotomy? Outline its principles and operative technique.
What is malalignment test? Discuss principles of focal dome osteotomy.

Gait
Describe the gait cycle .List various types of gait with diagnostic features (4+6)
Describe various types of Crutches ; gait pattern with crutches.
Explain in brief about crutch walking patterns of gait in crutch walking and their importance.
Give one example each of concentric and eccentric contraction during gait cycle. How will paralysis of tibialis anterior affect normal gait.
Describe the phases of norma! gait and the types of muscle contractions in gait cycle.
Define Gait. Describe the aetiopathogenesis and causes of trendleberg gait
Gait Cycle
Quadriceps Paralysis Gait – pathomechanics, compensation employed and corrective measures
Types of Muscle Contraction-
a) What is an isotonic contraction?
b) Classify isotonic muscle contraction
c) Give an example of concentric and eccentric muscle contraction in gait cycle

Sports Medicine
Rotator cuff injury in sportsmen.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation
Chondrocyte culture
Classification of Rotatory knee instability
Discuss the diagnosis and management of Anterior cruciate Ligament (ACL) lnjury.
Describe various clinical teats for evaluation of ligamentous injuries of knee.
Describe the mechanis, of injury of unhappy tirad of O’Donoghue. Briefly describe the current management of chronic ACL insufficiency in young athletic adult.
Enumerate various methods of ACL Reconstruction. Discuss the pros & cons of each method.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.
Describe various clinical methods to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament injury. Describe post operative management of ACL reconstruction by a bone patellar tendon bone graft.
What are closed chain and open chain exercises and discuss ACL rehabilitation protocol
Sports related injuries to soft tissues
loose bodies in knee – etiology? How will u manage a case of 30 year old sportsmanwho presents with locked knee due to loose body
Discuss the clinical features & management of Achilles tendinopathy in athletes

Arthroplasty
Principles of surface replacement arthroplasty of hip. What do you think are the reasons of failure of previous historical designs compared to the modern successful design?
Recent advances in bearing surfaces of total hip arthroplasty
Ceramic bearing surfaces in arthroplasty
Discuss causes of loosening after a total hip replacement. Discuss its clinical features, diagnosis and management.
Classify peri prosthetic fracture following a total hip replacement. Discuss their management.
Classify peri-prosthetic fractures following THR. Outline theis management strategies
classify Periprosthetic fractures around the knee. Outline the treatment strategy
Discuss various methods of preventing deep vein thrombosis following total knee replacement. Discuss their merits & demerits
DVT prophylaxis
Biomechanics of Knee in relation to total knee replacement
Concepts of total knee replacement
Briefly describe the relevant biomechanics of the lower limb, particularly in relation to bone cuts in total knee replacement
Bone defects encountered during total knee replacement and their management.
Describe the anatomy of PCL. Discuss its significance in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Arthrodesis
Give a functional classification of muscles around the shoulder. Enumerate the indications for shoulder arthrodesis. What are the pre- requisites for a good result? Describe any one technique of shoulder arthrodesis.
Enumerate indications & various techniques for shoulder arthrodesis. What are the prerequisites for a good result?
Triple arthrodesis for equines
Stewart and Harnaley ankle arthrodesis.

Fracture healing and nonunion
Describe fractures healing. Enumerate the factors affecting fracture healing.
Enumerate modalities leading to biological enhancement of fracture healing. Mention the methods of preservation of allogenic bone grafts. Comment on mode of action, advantages and disadvantages
Describe the biology of fracture healing and the influence of intra medullary rods and plates in healing. Discuss the role of various modalities in stimulation of osteogenesis (25 marks).
Briefly describe the stages of fracture healing. Discuss physical or chemical modalities to enhance fracture healing.
What are the stages of fracture healing? Discuss the factors regulating fracture healing.
Role of ultrasound in fracture healing
Biological enhancement of fracture healing
Biological enhancement of fracture healing
Biological enhancement of fracture healing
Describe the methods used for augmentation of fracture healing (10)
Define nonunion. Describe the classification and broad principles of management of diaphyseal nonunion. Discuss the principles of management of Non-Union fracture Neck of Femur in an adult
Classify infected nonunion. Discuss the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia.
Discuss Pathology & management of infected non-union
Describe Bone remodeling unit. Briefly describe the drugs which influence remodelling
Role of mesenchyme stem cell in fracture healing

Discuss the management of diaphyseal gap nonunion with 5 cm bone loss in a young adult(10)
Discuss the pathological alterations of femoral neck & head in neglected & ununited femoral neck fractures and their management?
Pain management
Describe gate control theory of pain. What is transcutaneous nerve stimulation and its indications?
gate control theory of pain
Post-operative pain management. Describe patient control analgesia.

Prosthetics and orthotics
Suction socket prosthesis
F.R.O
FRO
Floor reaction orthosis.
Floor reaction orthosis
Floor reaction Orthosis – indications, principles and advantages.
What is Floor Reaction Orthosis? Describe its parts and mechanism of function. What are its indications and contraindications?
Draw a diagram of Floor Reaction Orthosis, What is a good indication for its use. Describe mechanism of action Describe "JAIPUR FOOT". Discuss the difference with 'SACH FOOT'& - MADRAS FOOT"?
SOMI brace
Shoe modification for valgoid tilt
What are parts of a shoe? Describe the modifications of a CTEV shoe.
Role of orthosis in treatmnt of clubfoot
Pylon prosthesis – Indications, prerequisites and advantages
What is pylon prosthesis? What are advantages and disadvantages?
PTB prosthesis – Indications and principles
Suction Socket Prosthesis – principles, indications and advantages over conventional prosthesis and main points in its construction.
Bryant’s Traction.

Describe the orthotic management of an asensate foot particularly in reference to leprosy
Define ankle foot orthosis. What are the plastic materials used in fabrication. Describe indications and care during daily use.
Thermoplastic splints
Pavlik Harness
patellar tendon bearing prosthesis

Investigations, special therapy and physio in ortho
Acute phase reactants
Electromyography
Electrodiagnostic studies
Nuclear Imaging.
write SN on nuclear medicine and its applications in orthopaedics (5+5)
PET Scan
PET scan in orthopaedics practice
Describe the basic principle of PET scan and discuss its role in orthopedics.
Write short note on Nuclear medicine and its applications in Orthopedics.
Radionuclide bone scanning
Bone scan in musculoskeletal disorder.
Role of labeled WBC and multiphasic bone scan in bone Pathology
What is the role of electrodiagnosis (EMG/NCV) in differentiating various nerve lesions?
LASER Therapy
Microwave Diathermy – its physiogical effects, clinical applications & contraindications
what is short wave diathermy(SWD), How is it different from Microwave Diathermy
Indications and contraindications of short wave & microwave diathermy
Role of ultrasound in fracture healing
Therapeutic ultrasound.
Therapeutic ultrasound.

lnterferential Therapy (lFT)
IT(interferential therapy)
TENS
Transcutaneous nerve stimulation.
What are the various types of exercises? Discuss the benefits and indications of isometric exercises.
What is paraffin wax? How is it useful in treatment of orthopedic conditions? What are the indications and contraindications of wax bath therapy?
Ultrasonic Therapy – Physiological effects, clinical applications and contraindications
Describe the principles of MRI scan. Enumerate the applications of MRI in Orthopedics.
Describe the role of Ultrasonography in musculoskeletal disorders (10)

Clinical test
Trendelenberg test with its anatomical basis and clinical applications
Ober’s test (IT band contracture)
Describe various clinical teats for evaluation of ligamentous injuries of knee.
Recent Advances
Discuss the advances in the management of periarticular fractures
Recent advances in the management of intraarticular fractures of upper end of tibia
Advances in treatment of osteoporotic fractures.
Gene therapy in Orthopedics.
Gene therapy in orthopaedics
Advances in medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
what are the various protocols which have been used for pharmacological intervention in spinal cord injuries.what is the current opinion on pharmacological intervention
Classify distal radius fractures. What are the recent trends in their management?
Recent advances in bearing surfaces of total hip arthroplasty
Role of mesenchyme stem cell in fracture healing

Discuss the therapeutical potential of stem cells in musculoskeletal disorders (10)
Misc questions /Procedures
Intravenous Regional Anaesthesia in orthopedic practice.
Video Assisted Thoracoscopy
Day Care Surgery.
Surgical audit.
Tribology
Sexual Dimorphism in orthopedic practice

Control of air quality in a modern orthopaedic operation theatre.
Orthopaedics made simple for DNB MS MRCS Support and Guidance for DNB Orthopaedics, MS Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgeons. DNB Ortho MS Ortho MRCS Exam Guide Diplomate of National Board.Our site has been helping dnb ortho post graduates since a long time.It has been providing the dnb ortho theory question papers,dnb orthopedics solved question bank, davangere orthopaedic notes, sion orthopedic notes.We provide guidance to post graduates as to how to pass dnb and ms ortho exams, and aspiring orthopaedic surgeons surgical technique teaching videos and orthopaedic books and pdf.
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